Saturday, June 19, 2010

Oneness of God in Major Religious Scriptures

So now we know what are the major religions in the world. If you want to understand this religions, the best way is to check what the religious scriptures are saying about that religion. You may be wondered after reading the title of this post :) even i felt the same after understanding the these religious scriptures. There are so many similarities between these religious scriptures and the most common is "oneness of God". Lets analyze what the major religious scripture are saying about the topic;

Judaism is one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the world. Jewish Bible is the scripture of Judaism. It contains 39 books. The first five books (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy) is called Torah. It is in Hebrew language. Lets check what Judaism is saying about the oneness of God through its scriptures.

It has written in the book of Deuteronomy Ch. No.6, V. No.4

Hebrew : " Shama Israelu Adonai ila  Hayno Adna Ikhad "
English :  " Hear, oh Israel, The Lord our God is one Lord "

In the book of Isaiah Ch. No.43, V. No.11
" I, even I, am the Lord and besides me there is no Savior "

In the book Isaiah Ch. No. 45, V. No. 5
" I am Lord, and there is no one else, I am God and there is none like me "

In the book of Exodus Ch. V. No. 3 to 5
"Thou shall have no other gods besides me, Thou shall not make unto thee any graven image or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shall not bow down to them, nor serve them, for I the Lord, the God, is a jealous God."

In the book of Deuteronomy Ch. No. 5, V. No. 7 to 9
"Thou shall have no other gods besides me. Thou shall not make thee any graven image, of any likeness, of anything that is the heavens above, that is in the earth beneath, and in the water beneath the earth. Thou shall not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them for I the Lord, the God am a jealous God."

There are several other verses in Jewish scriptures which say "God is one". It is not necessary to mention all here because Judaism is a strict monotheistic religion .

Christianity is a religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament of Bible.  It claims to have nearly 1.2 billion adherents all over the world. The holy Bible is the sacred scripture of the Christians. They are believing that Bible is the word of God. Lets check what Bible is saying about the oneness of God.

"For there is no God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus"
(1 Timothy 2:5)

"I ascend  unto my father and your father; and to my God and your God"
(Gospel of john 20:17)

"Why callest thou me good ? There is none good but one, that is God."
(Gospel of Mathew 19:17)

"I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgement is just; because I seek not my own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me."

(Gospel of John 5:30)
"Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know."
(The Bible, Acts 2:22)

"And Jesus answered him, 'It is written, you shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve' "
(Gospel of Luke 4:8) 

"Then Jesus said to him, 'Away with you, Satan ! For it is written, you shall worship the Lord your God, and him only you shall serve"
(Gospel of Mathew 4:10)

Islam is a strict monotheistic religion having more than one billion followers in the world. Muslims believe in Holy Qur'an as the word of God. There are many verses in Qur'an which says the oneness of God. So i am only quoting the 112th chapter from the Qur'an( "Surah Ikhlas")

"Say: He is Allah, The One and Only.
"Allah, the Eternal, Absolute.
"He begets not, nor is He begotten.
And there is none like unto Him."
(Surah ikhlas Ch. 112, V. 1-4])
There are many other verses also in the holy Qur'an which says "God is one", like, Ch. 2, V. 225 , Ch. 24, V. 35, Ch. 59, V. 22-24 etc.
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of South Asia. It is the world's third largest religion after Christianity and Islam, approximately one billion adherents. In Hinduism the religious scriptures are divided in to "The Shrutis" and "The Smritis". The Shrutis are considered to be God's words and they are more sacred than the Smritis. The Shrutis are further divided in to two types, "The Vedas" (which means knowledge par excellence or sacred wisdom) and "The Upanishads" (it is called, Knowledge, which removes ignorance.). Basically there are four Vedas, The rigved, The Yajurved, The Samaved and The Atharvaved. The vedas are most authentic and more sacred in all scriptures of Hinduism. There are more than 200 upanishads, but the Indian tradition put the figure 108. Smritis are less sacred than the Shrutis, and they have been written by Rishies and the human beings. There are various types Smritis, The Puranas , The Epics (The Mahabharat and The Ramayan), The Bhagavad Gita (Bhagavad Gita is a part of Mahabharata, 18 chapters from the Bheeshm Parv. Ch 25 to Ch. 42), The Manusmriti etc. Lets analyse what these Hindu scriptures are saying about the topic.

Chandogya Upanishad Ch. 6, Sec. 2, V. 1
Sanskrit : "Ekam edivitiyam"
English : "He is one and only without a second"

Shvetashvatara Upanishad Ch. 6, V. 9
Sanskrit : "Na casya kasij janita na chadhipah"
English : "Of him there are neither parents nor Lord"

Shvetashvatara Upanishad Ch. 4, V. 19
Sanskrit : "Na tasya pratima asti"
English : "Of him, there is no pratima or likeness"

Shvetashvatara Upanishad Ch. 4, V. 20
Sanskrit : "Na samdrse tisthati rupam asya, na caksusa pasyati kas canaiam. Hrda hrdistham manasa ya enam, evam vidur amrtas te bhavanti"
English : "His form is not to be seen, no one sees Him with the eye. Those who through heart and mind know Him as abiding in the heart become immortal"

Bhagavad Gita Ch. 7, V. 20
"Those whose  intelligence has been stolen by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own nature"

Bhagavad Gita Ch. 10, V. 3
"He who knows Me as the unborn, as the beginning-less, as the Supreme Lord of all the worlds..."

Yajurveda Ch. 32, V. 3
Sanskrit : "Na tasya pratima asti"
English : "Of him, there is no pratima or likeness"

Rigveda Book No. 1, Hymn No. 164, V. 46
Sanskrit : "Ekam sat vipra bahudha vadanti"
English : "Truth is one, God is one, sages call Him by various names"

Rigveda Book No. 8, Hymn No. 1, V. 1
Sanskrit : "Ma cid anyad vi sansata sakhayo ma rishanyata"
English : "Do not worship anybody but Him, the Divine One, Praise Him alone"

And the Brahma Sutra of Hindu Vedanta is:
Sanskrit : "Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kinchan"
English : "There is only one God, not the second, not at all, not at all, not in the least bit"

Sikhism is a non-semitic, Aryan, non-Vedic religion founded by Guru Nanak at the end of the 15th century. It is a religion of 10 Gurus, the first Guru being Guru Nanak, and the 10th and the last being Guru Gobind Singh. The sacred book of sikhism is sri Guru Granth also called Adi Granth Sahib. Sikhism enjoins on its followers strict monotheism. It believes in only One Supreme God who is, in the unmanifest form called "Ek omkara". The best definition that we can give regarding the concept of God in Sikhism is quoting the "Mul Mantra" - the fundamental creed of Sikhism, which occurs at the beginning of Guru Granth Sahib.

It is mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib, volume. 1, Japuji, Verse-1
"There exists but one God, who is called the true the creator, free from fear and hate, immortal not begotten, self existent, great and compassionate"

Zoroastrianism is the ancient, pre-Islamic religion of Persia (modern Iran). It survives there in isolated areas but more prosperously in India, where the descendants of Zoroastrian Persian immigrants are known as Parsis, or Parsees. In India the religion is called Parsiism. Founded by the Iranian prophet and reformer Zoroaster in the 6th century BC, Zoroastrianism contains both monotheistic and dualistic features. Its concepts of one God, judgment, heaven and hell likely influenced the major Western religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It is also known as the religion of fire worshippers and Magianism. Parsi Scriptures consist of Dasatir and Vesta or Zend-Avesta. Dasatir is further divided into two parts: Khurda Dasatir and Kalan Dasatir. Avesta is further divided into Khurda Avesta and Kalan Avesta also known as Zend or Maha-Zend.
God in Zoroastrianism is known as ‘Ahura Mazda’. ‘Ahura’ means ‘the Lord’ or 'The Master' and ‘Mazda’ means ‘the Wise’; hence ‘Ahura Mazda’ means ‘the Wise Lord’ or ‘the Wise God’. Ahura Mazda stands for God, in a strictly monotheistic sense. 

According to the Dasatir, Ahura Mazda has the following qualities:
He is One.
He is without an origin or end.
He has no father or mother, wife or son.
He is without a body or form.
Nothing resembles Him.
Neither the eye can behold Him, nor the power of thinking can conceive Him.
He is above all that you can imagine.
He is nearer to you than your own self.

According to the Avesta, the Gathas and the Yasna give various characteristics to Ahura Mazda such as:
Yasna 31:7 & 11, Yasna 44:7, Yasna 50:11, Yasna 51:7

Most Mighty – the Greatest
Yasna 33:11, Yasna 45:6

Beneficent – Hudai.
Yasna 33:11, Yasna 48:3

Bountiful Spenta

Yasna 43:4,5,7,9,11,13,15, Yasna 44:2, Yasna 45:5, Yasna 46:9, Yasna 48:3


[References : The Bible, Torah, Qur' an, The Vedas, Principle Upanishad, Bhagavad Geeta, IRF, Zakir Naik, etc.]

1 comment:

  1. Thanks. Very good information.Hope those fighting for their own religions understand what is told by all religions is the same